Handling workers’ compensation can be a stressful task for business owners. Cordell Walton, program manager at Columbus, Ohio-based CareWorksComp, provides the 10 most common workers’ comp mistakes. CareWorksComp serves as an expert on workers’ compensation, risk and claims management.
Not understanding the system. Taking the time to familiarize yourself and your employees with your workers’ compensation program will help claims go smoother.
Not being involved. An easy way to be proactive in your workers’ comp process is to be actively involved. Walton suggests checking jobsites and identifying any possible hazards.
Not having a knowledgeable point person. It’s imperative to develop a good relationship with your MCO (managed care organization).
Not having an injury reporting process in place. There needs to be a process understood by all employees in case of a workplace injury.
“Always instruct your people to report to their superiors immediately when an injury happens,” Walton says.
He also suggests putting the process in the employee handbook and having everyone sign off on it.
Missing deadlines. Missing a deadline can leave you with a lapse in coverage. If you receive discounts or rebates, you may lose those discounts after 40 days without coverage. You must report your payroll every year on April 15.
Not understanding how rates are established. This also ties in to paying attention to deadlines. Your payroll report factors in to your rates, so giving timely and accurate numbers will keep your rate where it needs to be.
Not understanding how claims can impact your bottom line. Walton says to keep in mind that claims impact your rates for four years.
Not taking advantage of discount programs. There are different groups and rates for each company’s situation. For example, companies with no workers’ comp claims could see up to a 53 percent discount on their workers’ comp.
Not understanding and utilizing claim cost control strategies. Any proactive efforts like documenting any incidents can help control your claim costs.
Lack of communication with your MCO/TPA/BWC/Claimant. Whenever an incident occurs or a claim is made, you need to ensure all the right people are in communication, even the person who was injured. This will help build your claim.
Lauren is the assistant editor of Lawn & Landscape, a sister publication.
With labor shortages all over the country, smart growers are looking for ways to do more with less. Grand Haven, Mich.-based Spring Meadow Nursery has changed its liner production system many times to accommodate a new transplanter or sticking machine.
Spring Meadow Nursery is happy to invest in automation, which general manager Jeremy Deppe considers vital to the future of the industry.
“If we want to continue to grow and provide young plants for our customers, then we need to be able to have either the people or the equipment to be able to continue growing,” Deppe says. “To us, it’s a no brainer to continue to find ways to automate as much as possible.”
Automation is prevalent in every industry, but it’s particularly important in horticulture because of the difficulty of finding quality labor.
“Automation, for us, does not necessarily save us money,” Deppe says. “Machines aren’t necessarily more efficient than humans, but if you can’t find enough workers to do what you need to get done then it’s irrelevant. You have to move to automation just to reduce the number of people that you need because it will become harder and harder to fill all the available spots.”
Willing to change
Automation can be a fantastic help for a grower, but it’s not a silver bullet. The machinery is not “plug-and-play.” To reap the benefits, growers must evaluate the segment of their production system the equipment will attempt to automate. More than that, the nursery must be willing to change their process. And the workers must be able to adjust, as well.
With every piece of automation equipment that Spring Meadow has purchased, Deppe says it takes at least a year to understand the nuances of the machine, configure it properly and adjust the production process so that the new way is faster than the old way.
“You don’t change the machine to fit your production system,” Deppe says. “You have to change your production system to fit the machine.”
The equipment has very tight tolerances. Measurements must be correct down to the millimeter.
So how do you make sure you’re doing it right? The easiest way is to find someone else who has already done it and adapt what you can for your operation. The good news is nurseries can look to most other industries for examples.
“If the growers around the country would go and visit another industry and see what they’re doing with automation, they’d be blown away,” Deppe says. “They’d ask, ‘Why aren’t we doing this?’”
Spring Meadow has made a point of visiting other growers who have paved the way – pioneers of automation – locally and nationwide, and asking tons of questions. The horticulture industry is full of people who are willing to share and discuss best practices. Find them and ask what issues they’ve had, what they struggle with, what would have to change in their process, and if they think the investment was worth it.
“You don’t change the machine to fit your production system. You have to change your production system to fit the machine.” – Jeremy Deppe
Running on rails
One company Spring Meadow looked to for automation advice was Westbrook Greenhouse Systems. The Ontario-based company has manufactured all of Spring Meadow’s greenhouses. But Westbrook is more than a manufacturer to Spring Meadow.
“What we like about working with Westbrook is, in addition to being a greenhouse manufacturer, they are a greenhouse grower,” Deppe says.
Members of Spring Meadow’s management team have toured Westbrook on several occasions. Seeing the large grower/manufacturer’s adoption of automation encouraged Spring Meadow to try it themselves.
“We saw some of the homemade things that they were making internally for their own greenhouses and said, ‘We can do that,’” Deppe says.
After their creative fires had been stoked, Spring Meadow set a team to making prototypes. Spring Meadow’s greenhouses were custom-built to accommodate a 24-foot trimmer and a 24-foot sprayer and the rail system that is crucial to their operation. Both devices were inspired by Westbrook, and both run along a rail system that allows them to glide smoothly through the greenhouse.
It took two years and several prototypes to get the first 24-foot trimmer that Spring Meadow felt confident would work. Once the nursery was close to a finished product, they shopped it around to outside companies that could take their prototypes and make something built to last.
Deppe says Spring Meadow’s team is continually looking for ways to utilize the rail system. The initial investment of installing the rails was the most expensive part. Developing the trimming and spraying machines was comparatively cheap. However, Deppe says those two machines have reduced Spring Meadow’s labor in those two areas by 80 percent and given the nursery a more consistent and better product.
The success of the trimmer and sprayer on the rail system underlines a point Deppe makes about adopting automation in the nursery: don’t be daunted; just try it. One of the hurdles growers trip over most often is seeing some immense example of automation and giving up. They want to automate, but it seems too big, too expensive, too complicated.
“Every idea that we have around here started out as a small idea,” Deppe says. “It grew over time.”
Starting small makes financial sense. Calculate your payback period for any new piece of equipment. When Spring Meadow first started dipping its toes in the automation waters, the nursery capped any project’s payback period at three to five years.
“If it didn’t fit that, we didn’t buy it,” Deppe says.
As Spring Meadow has grown and the lack of labor has forced their hand, the nursery has extended those timeframes.
Empower your team
If your employees are willing to put in the effort and you’re willing to allocate some money and time for R&D, you could reap the benefits years down the road. Deppe is clear that his employees are the ones in the company that deserve the credit for thinking up wild ideas of how to simplify the nursery’s production process or make it more efficient. The key is to remove fear from the equation. Many companies fear a project won’t work, so they don’t try. Deppe says it’s crucial to make employees understand that it often won’t work, at least not at first. He compares it to when his growers want to try something new but worry about killing their plants.
“I’m like ‘kill them.’ If they’re not sold, kill them,” he says. “Every single person in our nursery has killed plants. Every time you did it you learned something. You learned what to do and what not to do. Automation equipment is no different. Try it and see what happens. Do your research. Talk to the rest of the industry. Just do it.”
Stick the landing
One common refrain you’ll hear from growers who have invested in automation is to pay attention to how the Europeans do it. Deppe and the Spring Meadow team have visited European colleagues in their own industry. No matter whether they are growing annuals, perennials or shrubs, the one constant is that almost every operation is using significantly less labor.
“It’s mind blowing when you walk over there how many people there are not in those greenhouses,” Deppe says.
Spring Meadow’s latest investment is a set of four machines that automate the labor-intensive task of sticking cuttings.
“As a propagator, as one who sticks millions of cuttings per year, the thought of a sticking machine is something we’ve dreamt about and hoped for, for years,” Deppe says.
There were machines in the marketplace already, both small-scale and high-volume models, but none truly fit Spring Meadow’s operation. Still, the hope remained. In 2015, Spring Meadow’s management team saw an article about the ISO Model 2500 automated cutting planter. It piqued their interest, and after some research, they decided to reach out to the Dutch robotics company. Spring Meadow founder and president Dale Deppe and product development manager Tim Wood visited as part of a January 2016 trip to meet with customers and tour the IPM Essen trade show.
As part of the Proven Winners network, Spring Meadow Nursery has partners and customers all over Europe. Those partners were able to send cuttings of boxwood and hydrangea – “things we do every day,” Deppe says – to the ISO Group for them to test.
The videos that ISO Group sent back were enough to convince Spring Meadow to take a chance.
“Our team said ‘That’s a lot of money to spend… but if this works, then it could completely change how we stick cuttings over the next five to ten years,” Deppe says.
The first machine arrived in August 2016. After about six weeks of fiddling with the settings and trialing the machine, they ordered three more. Deppe expects the payback on these machines to be in the five to 10 year range, depending on how often they run them.
With the ISO machines, every cutting is pushed down to the same depth, which results in uniformity. Thanks to the self-learning vision software, cutting types of many species of plants can be planted in a short time. The user-friendly interface ensures the easy and fast input of new plants. The use of the machine is very flexible, regardless of whether the cuttings should be planted into a tray or pot, and in different planting patterns. The same machine can even process different pot sizes.
One person can operate up to seven machines, loading the conveyors with unsorted cuttings and empty trays. The conveyor shakes the cuttings to make it possible for the machine’s two cameras to spot individual sprigs. The cameras scan for cuttings, and once one is found, relay its location to the robot arm, which zips over to pick it up. Next, the arm swings over to plant it in a waiting tray. The gripper is equipped with a pushing device to make sure the cutting is planted firmly in the medium. And the cycle repeats. The machines can plant in loose soil, paper plugs and peat plugs. At Spring Meadow, each machine can stick 2,000 cuttings in an hour.
The downside of automation is that it requires some tinkering. For these particular machines, there were several variables to consider, including the right type of cutting, size, and depth of placement.
Whether it’s troubleshooting or programming tweaks, Spring Meadow has always been able to get the answers they need when they need them. The ISO Group has been available to help via Skype or traditional telephone calls.
“Even though we’re six hours and an ocean apart, we can communicate almost daily, if needed,” Deppe says.
Just as a healthy soil is the foundation of a successful garden, so is a healthy company culture to a successful business. Even so, building a strong and sustainable company culture and projecting positive organization values isn’t an easy task. Doing the same in a business with seasonal employees is even tougher. The most important factor in projecting a solid company culture to your seasonal employees is actually having one in place before they arrive.
Company culture may be built from within, but it starts at the top with owners and key managers. First, you must define your core company values and make sure you yourself are walking the talk. If you haven’t done that, there’s little hope of creating a company culture that can be passed on from employee to employee.
Action always speaks louder than words. If you’ve developed company values around a particular concept, such as being environmentally friendly, then you’d better make sure your business practices and partnerships are aligned with that value. If all your recyclables are going into the dumpster, you’ve just failed company culture 101. Expect your staff to be up to date on technology and social media, but you won’t spend any money to update your website? Then you’re a company culture fibber. If you tout independent thinking and creativity, but you micro-manage your staff to death, that’s another company culture fib. If you value community involvement and charitable giving, but you say no to all the donation requests that pass your marketing manager’s desk, well, you see where I’m going here. Give your employees cause to question the authenticity of your company values and you’ll forever be fighting a losing battle.
Just as a healthy soil is the foundation of a successful garden, so is a solid company culture to a successful business.
Once you’ve defined your values and approach to doing business, and you yourself are setting a good example, you should identify the employees you already have that embody those values. Are you acknowledging them for such and making them feel valued in their jobs? These value-match employees will be your key to projecting and passing on a positive company culture. Without their buy-in, you’ll be stuck trying to coach every employee directly on how to act — that’s not a sustainable approach.
Good or bad, company values can be contagious, but not without communication. If you aren’t having group activities, pep meetings, disseminating a company newsletter, or checking in regularly with all of your staff, then it’s hard to establish a communal set of values. Encourage open communication by listening and encouraging staff to express their goals, needs, and frustrations. Just as with your external company marketing message, you need to control the conversation amongst your employees with good internal PR.
Seasonal employees can be a good source of perspective for you on how your company culture is or isn’t working. Seasonal staff get a boot camp snapshot of how it is to work with you in your business and they aren’t jaded by long-term employment or even a sense of expectation of future work. That may mean they’re willing to be a bit more honest with you. Be sure to ask for and accept their constructive criticism and feedback on their working experience. Consider doing the same type of exit interview with key seasonal staff as you would with a long-term employee; you just may garner some valuable nuggets of feedback.
First, you must define your core company values & make sure you yourself are walking the talk.
After all, if you rely on seasonal employees, you need them to want to come back. Or at least tell their friends about how they enjoyed working for you.
Don’t skip or skimp on training for new hires, especially not seasonal hires. It may be tempting to think you’ll be saving resources by only investing minimal effort into onboarding seasonal staff, but that approach usually bites you in the tail with customer service. Schedule pre-season training sessions for each department. Make sure you also have a well-organized and planned group orientation session pre-spring for all of your existing and new employees, including seasonal hires. Express your company values and approach to operations, production, and customer service at this orientation and provide all of your company policies and training documents at this time. Allow your key staff and department heads to each address the group and consider doing some role-playing to make new staff feel more confident. This investment of time will make your new staff feel welcome and valued.
Ultimately, company culture isn’t just about coffee bars and bean bag chairs, or vacation time. It’s about opportunity and a shared value system. If your profits are the only foundation for your company culture, employee morale will suffer. Creating and projecting a positive company culture stems from how positive your employees feel about their opportunity for success while working for you. NM
Leslie Halleck (CPH) owns Halleck Horticultural, LLC, through which she provides horticultural consulting, business and marketing strategy, product development and branding, and content creation for green industry companies. lesliehalleck.com
Ace the audit
Features - Cover Story
Business owners must be vigilant to keep accurate I-9 forms or face intense federal scrutiny that may result in hefty fines, or worse.
You likely have scads of paperwork filed away, including Form I-9 for employment eligibility verification. But how closely are you examining these forms once they’re completed? If you’re not scrutinizing every line and every box of that form, members of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) will, and at a cost.
All employers must complete and retain Form I-9 for every person they hire after Nov. 6, 1986, in the U.S., as long as the person works for pay or other type of payment. Make certain the Form I-9 you’re using is the correct version. Look at the revision date printed on the bottom left corner of the form, and not the expiration date printed at the top of the form. At press time, only forms showing “Rev. 07/17/2017” are valid. All versions, including notices of revised versions, are located on the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS) site at www.uscis.gov. Employers may use the online SmartI-9 form, which is an electronic form that was designed to help prevent mistakes.
Employers must keep original Forms I-9 for all current employees. However, I-9s of former employees must be kept for at least three years from the date of hire or for one year after the employee is no longer employed, whichever is longer.
If these forms are not filled out correctly or filed and handled improperly, the offending company is likely to be audited.
An I-9 audit could happen at any time, and every employer must be prepared, says David Jones, partner at Fisher & Phillips LLP’s Memphis office. Any number of things can trigger an audit, he says, such as dealings with the Department of Labor, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, any of which can alert ICE. The CIS, which oversees the E-Verify program, may receive data that would be referred to ICE, information may come in on a tip line, or ICE may be conducting targeted investigations, he adds.
According to the Society for Human Resource Management, ICE audited 1,360 organizations in 2017, resulting in 71 indictments and 55 convictions of business owners and managers. In January, ICE targeted 7-11 stores across the U.S. with audits and raids. Those actions “send a strong message to U.S. businesses that hire and employ an illegal workforce: ICE will enforce the law, and if you are found to be breaking the law, you will be held accountable,” says ICE deputy director Thomas D. Homan, in a released statement. “Businesses that hire illegal workers are a pull factor for illegal immigration and we are working hard to remove this magnet. ICE will continue its efforts to protect jobs for American workers by eliminating unfair competitive advantages for companies that exploit illegal immigration.”
The Associated Press reports that ICE’s Homeland Security Investigations acting director Derek Benner says ICE is "gearing up for ... large-scale compliance inspections" this year. "It's not going to be limited to large companies or any particular industry — big, medium and small,” he tells the AP.
There is a concern of more aggressive worksite enforcement from ICE, including using tools such as audits or raids, says Craig Regelbrugge, senior vice president of industry advocacy and research at AmericanHort.
“I’ve heard reports of audits ticking up in California, and part of what we’re seeing there is tension between the state and the feds in regards to immigration. We’re seeing a bit of a showdown between the California Attorney General and ICE,” Regelbrugge says.
But all growers need to be prepared for audits, not just ones based in California.
“The people who keep the economy going are the ones caught in the cross hairs,” he says. “There’s this public perception that these folks are being paid under the table and taking jobs. But in reality, these are hardworking, experienced members of our extended family.”
And growers must have a contingency plan and coping strategies in place if, after an audit, they lose a chunk of their workforce, he adds.
“We can’t ignore the emotional angle for those left behind if workers are deported. That’s something we don’t talk much about, but it’s so important,” he says.
The audit process
In the case of an audit, ICE sends the employer a Notice of Inspection, and the employer has three business days to supply ICE with all of its I-9s. Companies may ask for an extension, Jones says.
“ICE is going to ask you for an I-9 on all active employees hired after a certain date, as well as payroll records, an electronic spreadsheet with all employee names and basic company information. They may also ask for quarterly tax records,” Jones adds. “With any type of audit, make sure you keep copies of anything you supply to the government.”
The paperwork review typically takes a few weeks, but depending on the size of the business, it could take a few months.
When technical or procedural violations are found, an employer is given 10 business days to make corrections. An employer may receive a monetary fine for all substantive and uncorrected technical violations. Employers determined to have knowingly hired or continued to employ unauthorized workers will be required to cease the unlawful activity, may be fined, and could be criminally prosecuted.
Penalties for substantive violations, which includes failing to produce a Form I-9, range from $110 to $1,100 per violation. Monetary penalties for “knowingly hire” and “continuing to employ” violations range from $375 to $16,000 per violation. According to ICE, it considers five factors to determine penalty amounts: the size of the business, good faith effort to comply, seriousness of violation, whether the violation involved unauthorized workers, and history of previous violations.
ICE will notify the audited party, in writing, of the results of the inspection once completed. The most common notices are:
Notice of Inspection Results – also known as a "compliance letter," used to notify a business that they were found to be in compliance.
Notice of Suspect Documents – advises the employer that based on a review of the Forms I-9 and documentation submitted by the employee, ICE has determined that an employee is unauthorized to work and advises the employer of the possible criminal and civil penalties for continuing to employ that individual. ICE provides the employer and employee an opportunity to present additional documentation to demonstrate work authorization if they believe the finding is in error.
Notice of Discrepancies – advises the employer that based on a review of the Forms I-9 and documentation submitted by the employee, ICE has been unable to determine their work eligibility. The employer should provide the employee with a copy of the notice, and give the employee an opportunity to present ICE with additional documentation to establish their employment eligibility.
Notice of Technical or Procedural Failures – identifies technical violations identified during the inspection and gives the employer ten business days to correct the forms. After ten business days, uncorrected technical and procedural failures will become substantive violations.
Warning Notice – issued in circumstances where substantive verification violations were identified, but circumstances do not warrant a monetary penalty and there is the expectation of future compliance by the employer.
Notice of Intent to Fine (NIF) – may be issued for substantive, uncorrected technical, knowingly hire and continuing to employ violations.
In instances where a NIF is served, charging documents will be provided specifying the violations committed by the employer. The employer has the opportunity to either negotiate a settlement with ICE or request a hearing before the Office of the Chief Administrative Hearing Officer (OCAHO) within 30 days of receipt of the NIF. If the employer takes no action after receiving a NIF, ICE will issue a Final Order.
Always be ready
Even growers who are participating in E-Verify should be prepared for a potential audit, says Joe Bailey, human resources director at Bailey Nurseries, which has been audited by ICE in the past.
The best way to be prepared and get through an audit is to have trained staff that understands every detail of the form and how to fill it out properly, he says.
Bailey Nurseries employs more than 1,000 people system-wide, which equates to a lot of paperwork, including I-9s.
“In our case, they [ICE] went back three years with this last audit,” he explains. “Out of over 1,000 employees, they found one person with what they call suspicious documents, and that person was no longer employed by us. Our paperwork was as close to perfect as you can get it.
“We received a notice of intention to fine, but ICE was incorrect on several of the things they marked as violations, and we’ve appealed those.”
Bailey Nurseries had copies of all documents for every employee that matched up with every original the company handed over to ICE for the audit.
“Some people may think of having copies of all those documents a liability, but we think it’s a necessity,” he says. “Make sure all your paperwork is well organized.”
Bailey conducts internal audits. Employment or immigration attorneys will also conduct mock audits and help correct any mistakes, he says.
“You’ve got the peace of mind that you’ve checked all your paperwork. Make it a practice to do an internal audit at least every year,” he adds.
Willoway Nurseries in Avon, Ohio, has been preparing for audits for a number of years, although an official audit has not happened yet, says Emily Showalter, the nursery’s chief operations officer. The nursery conducts internal audits and created a standard operating procedure for filling out and handling I-9s.
“If we have an ICE audit, we can show them our procedures, which shows we take this seriously,” she says.
Showalter and the rest of her HR staff are trained in the rules of filling out and handling I-9s. Willoway runs quarterly checks of employees who should have I-9s, and those checklists are kept with the I-9 files.
“The checks and the internal audits are not that difficult. We’d rather be proactive,” she says.
Showalter and her staff keep immaculate notes and organize the mountain of paperwork.
“You can’t drop everything to get all your paperwork in line in three days for an audit, so that’s why you have to be organized,” she adds. “If we understand the fine details, we can show good effort [in the event of an audit] and have all these things ready.”
And in the case of a disaster, make sure the forms are in a fire-safe area, she says.
Storing data in the ‘sky’
Features - Technology
Cloud computing allows growers to do business from practically anywhere.
Most people use cloud computing on a daily basis without realizing it. Typing a query into Google via a home PC sends your words to a Google data center, which finds the results and promptly returns them to you, no matter where on the planet you're located.
QuickBooks Online, Facebook, Twitter – it’s all in the cloud.
"The cloud," as it’s known colloquially, also holds numerous advantages for industries, including horticulture, says Greg Lafferty, senior account executive at Practical Software Solutions.
Practical Software Solutions, has been plugging green-industry businesses into the cloud since 2006. Lafferty points to remote access capabilities, data storage and loss prevention as major benefits of cloud computing technology.
What exactly is the cloud? Cloud computing is hardware and software provided as a service by another company and accessed over the internet. For example, creating a spreadsheet on a web-based Google Document uses software running on a PC at a Google data center, as opposed to a Microsoft Word document that's only reachable via your home or office computer.
"The cloud is up all the time, and you don't have to hold [computer] hardware on-site," says Lafferty. "You could use a phone, iPad or desktop PC, but you're not going to need a server room or any kind of sophisticated networking hardware. Your data is stored in a server farm somewhere."
Big providers like Microsoft have data centers all over the world, so you don’t know if your data is in San Francisco or Beijing, he says.
Small businesses, including growers, use the cloud for all levels of their business, Lafferty says. Google Mail or Office 365 webmail are some of the more rudimentary applications available. Cloud-based infrastructure, such as replacing a phone system with voiceover IP, represents the next rung up the cloud computing ladder. Growers large and small can also put their entire business systems in the cloud.
“Every business has its own set of goals, and the cloud allows small businesses to take advantage of applications that may have only been available to large businesses in the past,” Lafferty explains. “Cloud-based applications also have the advantage of quickness and ease of access.”
Some of the more significant uses of cloud-based applications for growers include replenishment and forecasting systems, as well as truck routing and logistics planning, and timekeeping and payrolls systems, he says.
The ability to retrieve information from practically anywhere is particularly advantageous to green industry firms with more than one location. Deploying new applications across a system is easy and straightforward, requiring no testing or installation.
For any of this to work, your location must have reliable internet access. And users should consider a backup internet provider if your primary source goes down.
“It’s an extra cost, but if you can’t ship or send an invoice because your internet is down, that’s a problem,” he says.
Disaster recovery and data preservation are the primary benefits of this 24/7 accessibility, he adds.
"If your data is on a server in Miami (during a hurricane), that's a bad place to be," Lafferty says. "But Amazon's web services have data centers around the world allowing you to access your information."
Other advantages include the ability to access technology and tools without having to purchase as much infrastructure and hardware.
“Generally, growers would rather put capital funding into trucks or transplanters, for example. Computers and software are intangible – growers know they need it, but it doesn’t necessarily directly translate into more units produced,” he says.
While integrating a computer into a bigger network represents a security risk, Lafferty says there are more attractive hacking targets than the average grower or garden center.
There could be some inconveniences involved in cloud-based computing, he adds.
“If you’re using software that you own and your business changes, you pay a programmer to modify your software. But in the cloud, you lose that flexibility. You may only get access to one custom field. Typically, what they deliver is what you get,” he says.
Before you commit to a cloud-based system, make sure you understand how to get out of it and how you’ll retrieve your data once you’re no longer using it, he warns.
Douglas is a Cleveland Heights, Ohio-based freelance writer and journalist. Nursery Management Editor Kelli Rodda contributed to this article.